Indicator formulas

In according with the guidelines on Alternative Performance Indicators which were published by the European Securities and Markets Authority in 2015 and came into force on 3 July 2016, the Company provide definitions and formulas (below) of the company's operating and financial indicators.
The Company's performance and financial indicators are used to evaluate the Company's financial position or status. For these indicators, the Company's investor can obtain additional information to help understand the Company's financial position and strategy.


  • Dividend yield – the set value of dividends paid per share for the last financial year divided by the price per share at the end of a financial period.
                               The set value of dividends paid per share for the last financial year
Dividend yield = —————————————————————————————— 
                                      The price per share at the end of a financial period


This is a particularly an important valuation measure for investors seeking regular income. The higher the yield, the higher the payout for the shareholder compared to the price of the share.


  • Book value per share – the Group's equity divided by the number of shares, excluding the Group's own shares, at the end of a financial period.
                                                                                        The Group's equity
Book value per share = —————————————————————————————————————————
                                        The number of shares, excluding the Group's own shares, at the end of a financial period


The book value per common share indicates the euro value remaining for common shareholders after all assets are liquidated and all debtors are paid.


  • Price to Book ratio – the ratio of the share price at the end of a financial period to the book value per share.
                                     The share price at the end of a financial period
Price to Book ratio = ———————————————————————————
                                                      The book value per share


Price-to-book ratio compares a firm's market to book value by dividing price per share by book value per share. This shows how the valuation is covered by equity.


  • Dividends/Net profit – Ratio between the dividends allocated at the ongoing year for the year before and ongoing year net profit of the Company. 
                                       Ratio between the dividends allocated at the ongoing year for the year before
Dividends/Net profit = ————————————————————————————————————
                                                          Ongoing year net profit of the Company


The dividend payout ratio is the ratio of the total amount of dividends paid out to shareholders relative to the net income of the company. It is the percentage of earnings paid to shareholders in dividends.


  • Return on Equity (ROE) – the ratio of net income to average equity for a financial period, measured in percentage terms.
                                                                                                         Net income
Return on Equity (ROE) (measured in percentage terms) = ——————————————————
                                                                                                Average equity for a financial period


Return on equity excludes debt in the denominator and compares net profit for the period with total average shareholders’ equity. It measures the rate of return on shareholders’ investment and is, therefore, useful in comparing the profitability of the Group with its competitors.


  • Average equity is an arithmetical average of the beginning equity and ending equity for the financial period.
Average equity = (The beginning equity for the financial period + The ending equity for the financial period) / 2


  • Return on Assets (ROA) – the ratio of net income to average total assets for a financial period, measured in percentage terms.
                                                                                                                Net income
Return on Assets (ROA) (measured in percentage terms) = ————————————————————
                                                                                                 Average total assets for a financial period


Return on assets (ROA) is an indicator of how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. ROA gives a manager, investor, or analyst an idea as to how efficient a company's management is at using its assets to generate earnings.


  • Average total equity is an arithmetical average of the beginning total assets and ending total assets for the financial period.
Average total equity = (The beginning total assets for the financial period + The ending total assets for the financial period) / 2


  • Liquidity ratio – the ratio of current assets to current liabilities.
                                 Current assets
Liquidity ratio = ——————————
                                Current liabilities


Liquidity ratio is a financial metric used to determine a debtor's ability to pay off current debt obligations without raising external capital.


  • Operating profit margin – the ratio of operating profit to sales, measured in percentage terms.
                                                                                                   Operating profit
Operating profit margin (measured in percentage terms) = ————————————
                                                                                                           Sales

Operating margin measures how much profit a company makes on a euro of sales, after paying for variable costs of production such as wages and raw materials, but before paying interest or tax. It is calculated by dividing a company’s operating profit by its net sales.


  • Pretax profit margin – the ratio of pretax profit to sales, measured in percentage terms.
                                                                                                Pretax profit
Pretax profit margin (measured in percentage terms) = ——————————
                                                                                                     Sales


The pretax profit margin is the ratio of a company's pre-tax earnings to its total sales. The higher the pretax profit margin, the more profitable the company.


  • Operating profit excluding revaluation of investment property margin – the ratio of operating profit excluding net gain from fair value adjustments on investment property to sales, measured in percentage terms.
Operating profit excluding revaluation of investment property margin (measured in percentage terms) = (Operating profit - The net gain from fair value adjustments on investment property) / Sales

Operating profit excluding revaluation of investment property margin measures how much profit a company makes on a euro of sales, after paying for variable costs of production such as wages and raw materials, but before paying interest or tax and excluding effects of investment property revaluation. It is calculated by dividing a company’s operating profit by its net sales.


  • Price earnings ratio (P/E) – the share price at the end of a financial period divided by earnings per share (EPS).
                                               The share price at the end of a financial period
Price earnings ratio (P/E) = ———————————————————————
                                                         Earnings per share (EPS)


To determine the P/E value, one simply must divide the current stock price by the earnings per share (EPS). It is used to compare a company against its own historical record or to compare aggregate markets against one another or over time.


  • Net profitability – net profit divided by sales, expressed in percentage terms.
                                                                                            Net profit
Net profitability (expressed in percentage terms) = ——————————
                                                                                              Sales


The net profitability is equal to how much net income or profit is generated as a percentage of revenue. It illustrates how much of each euro in revenue collected by a company translates into profit.


  • EBITDA (earnings before interest tax depreciation and amortization) profitability – operating profit excluding net profit from a revaluation of investment assets with depreciation and amortization added back divided by sales, expressed in percentage terms.
EBITDA (earnings before interest tax depreciation and amortization) profitability (expressed in percentage terms) = (Operating profit - Net profit from a revaluation of investment assets + Depreciation and amortization) / Sales

Earnings before interest tax depreciation and amortization as a percentage of revenue.EBITDA margin can provide an investor, business owner or financial professional with a clear view of a company's operating profitability and cash flow.